BUMDES Dan Peran Masyarakat Dalam Perspektif Kewirausahaan Sosial

BUMDES Dan Peran Masyarakat Dalam Perspektif Kewirausahaan Sosial

13
Yaner Bunto Tasoin

Corpsnews, TTU – Badan usaha Milik Desa (BuMDesa) merupakan Usaha yang di kelola oleh pemerintah Desa dan berbadan Hukum. Pemerintah Desa dapat mendirikan Badan usaha Milik Desa sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan potensi Desa. Pembentukan badan usaha milik desa (Bumdes) ditetapkan dengan peraturan Desa. Kepengurusan Badan usaha Milik Desa terdiri dari
pemerintah desa dan masyarakat desa setempat. Hadirnya UU No 6 Tahun 2014 sebenarnya memberi dampak yang besar dalam meningkatkan pembangunan serta pemberdayaan masyarakat Desa.

Hemat Penulis, di Indonesia jumlah BUMDES saat ini sudah mencapai 46 ribu. Hal ini menandakan bahwa dampak UU No 6 tahun 2014 ini memberi peluang bagi bagi PEMDES dalam meningkatkan taraf
perekonomian masyarakatnya.
Menyoal kehadiran BUMDES yang terjadi saat ini hampir tidak sejalan dengan amanat UU serta amanat bersama masyarakat pada wilyah desa tersebut.

Peraturan Desa Mengenai BUMDES hanya sebuah stimulus untuk memberi instrument dalam pencairaan anggaran BUMDES. Aneh, Semenjak BUMDES belum didirikan hampir seluruh Kepala wilayah (Desa) Masih memilki pola hidup yang sama dengan Masyarakatnya. Namun, dengan adanya BUMDES masyarakat desa hanya diposisikan sebagai citra BUMDES dan yang merasakan dampaknya adalah Kepala wilayahnya.

Hal ini perlu dipertanyakan oleh
masyrakat dengan menjunjung tinggi amant demokrasi dengan berkonsultasi dengan BPD Setempat namun apakah gerangan hal ini bisa ditinjaklanjuti oleh BPD?
Hal ini mungkin belu tentu terjadi. Lantas apa yang harus dilakukan agar efisiensi dari kinerja BUMDES dirasakan ?

PERENCANAAN
Perencaanan pendirian BUMDES perlu lakukan atas dasar kajian mendasar mengenai potensi asset Desa, Baik Sumber daya Manusianya(SDM) serta sumber daya alam desanya (SDA) sebab, tak semata mendirikan suatu badan independent yang coraknya usaha dalam pengembangan dan pemberdayaan masyarakat. Ini tidak mudah, hal ini perlu dikaji dalam sebuah pendekatan analisis SWOT dengan melihat berbagai Ancaman dan Peluangnya.

Menurut Penulis, Sembari melihat metodologi perencanaan diatas perlu juga kita melihat Amanat pasal 107 ayat (1) huruf (a) Undang- undang Nomor 22 Tahun 1999 dinyatakan Bahwa sumber pendapatan Desa salah satunya adalah Pendapat asli Desa yang Meliputi :

1. Hasil usaha Desa
2. Hasil Kekayaan Desa.
3. Hasil swadaya dan Partisipasi.
4. Gotong Royong

Dalam buku panduan BUMDesa yang dikeluarkan Departemen Pendidikan nasional (2007:4 ) BUMDesa adalah merupakan badan usaha Milik Desa yang didirikan atas dasar Kebutuhan dan potensi desa sebagai upaya penuingkatan Kesejahteraan masyrakat. Berkenaan dengan perencanaan dan pendiriannya, BUMDesa dibangun atas prakarsa
dan partisipasi masyarakat. BUMDesa juga merupakan perwujudan partisipasi masyrakat Desa secara keseluruhan, sehingga tidak menciptakan model usaha yang di hegemoni oleh kelompok tertentu di tingkat Desa. Artinya tata aturan ini terwujud dalam mekanismekelembagaan yang solid .Penguatan kapasitas kelembagaan akan terarah pada adanya tata aturan yang mengikat seluruh anggota.

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PENDIRIAN
Pembentukan atau pendirian BUMDesa adalah seperangkat langkah yang harus di
lalui oleh pemerintahan desa dengan memperhatikan hal-hal seperti aturan dan Kebijakan-kebijakan antara lain :

1. Peraturan Menteri Dalam Negeri Nomor 39 tahun 2010 Tentang Badan Usaha Milik
Desa

2. Atas Inisiatif pemerintah Desa dan atau masyarakat berdasarkan musywarah warga
desa..

3. sesuai dengan kebutuhan masyarakat

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4. Tersedianya sumberdaya desa yang Belum di optimalkan secara maksimal.

5. Tersedianya sumber daya manusia yang mampu mengelola badan usaha sebagai aset penggerak perekonomian Masyarakat desa.

Dalam porsi pendirian BUMDES perlu melihat hal-hal diatas dengan maksu adalah untuk menghindari kekiliruan dalam berpikir sehingga nanti pencapaian target usaha
BUMDES tidak terindikasi pada kerangka kekiliruan dalam pelaaksaan usaha
Pengelolaan-pengelolaan BUMDes harus diljalankan dengan menggunakan prinsip kooperatif, partisipatif, emansipatif, transparansi, akuntable, dan sustainable, dengan mekanisme, member-base dan self help yang dijalankan secara profesional, dan mandiri.

Dalam point pengeloaan BUMDES baik oleh pengurus dan masyarakat sebagai control social dan symbol ketercapaiaan BUMDES maka hal-hal atau aktivitas-aktivitas yang perlu dilakukann adalah :

1. Mendesign struktur organisasi

2. Menyusun job deskripsi

3. Menetapkan sistem koordinasi

4. Menyusun bentuk aturan kerjasama
dengan pihak ketiga

5. Menyusun bentuk aturan kerjasama dengan pihak ketiga

6. Menyusun desain sistem informasi

7. Menyusun rencana usaha

8. Menyusun sistem administrasi dan pembukuan

9. Melakukan proses rekruitmen

10. Menetapkan sistem penggajian dan pengupahan.

Jika demikian , lantas Bagaimana seharusnya BUMDES itu pandang dalam perspektif kewirausahaan social?
Kewirausahaan social adalah sebuah alternative yang berbasis masyarakat yang
berpotensi menyempurnakan proses pembangunan. Menurut Germak dan sigh (2010:80) menyatakan bahwa kewirausahaan social mengkombinasikan ide-ide inovatif untuk perubahan social ,yang dilakukan dengan mengaplikasikan strategi dan ketrampilan bisnis. Lebih dalam pemahaman tersebut Dhewanto (2013:47) menjelaskan bahwa kewirausahaan social bekerja dengan mendefinisikan masalah sosila tertentu kemudian mengatur ,membuat dan mengelola usaha social untuk mencapai perubahan yang
diiginkan.

Gerakan kewirausahaan social pada hakikatnya ialah suatu gerakan yang di gerakan oleh orang-orang yang berpikir maju dan serta pintar membaca peluang di tengah perubahan zaman. Kewirausahaan social adalah aktivitas dengan memiliki logikanya sendiri. logikanya yang dibangun ,berbeda dengan logika kewirausahaan”tradisional” yang cenderung mencari keuntungan untuk diri sendiri. Alih-alih waktu kesejahteraan priibadi,para pelaku kewirausahaan social mendedikasikan waktu dan tenaga untuk peningkatan kesejahteraan pihak-pihak lain.maka akan muncul sebuah pertanyaan ,yaitu apa yang membuat individu-individu /kelompok melakukan aktifitas-aktifitas social?

Dari Penjelasan diatas mengenai kewirausaaan social maka penulis berkesimpulan bahwa kewirausahaan social adalah sebuah strategi yang perlu dipakai dalam pengelolaan
BUMDES dengan menjunnjung tinggi asas kebudaayan serta prinsip solidaritas dalam
meningkatkan pendapatan masyarakat yang mencirikan social ekonomi dan di perkuat oleh PERDES serta partisipasi Mayarakat secara Gotong Royong.

Penulis : Yaner Bunto Tasoin
Mahasiswa Aktif Universitas TIMOR
Prodi Ilmu Pemerintahan

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