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Pahlawan Sri Langka dari Tanah Makassar

Pahlawan Sri Langka dari Tanah Makassar

(Kisah Pembuangan Sultan Gowa di Ceylon)

Walau kerajaan Gowa menganut sistem monarchi, tetapi pada sistem pemerintahannya dikenak pembagian kekuasaan antara eksekutif dan legislative. Kekuasaan eksekutif di pegang oleh Raja dan pembantuanya. Sedangkan kekuasaan legislative dipegang oleh Bate Salapanga.

Sebelum memangku jabatan, seorang Raja harus menandatangani kontrak sosial dengan Bate Salapanga yang mewakili rakyat Gowa secara keseluruhan. Inti kontrak sosial itu, bahwa Raja yang dipilih tidak akan bertindak sewenang-wenang.

Bila ada Raja yang bertindak sewenang-wenang, maka rakyat akan memberontak hingga raja itu turun. Seperti yang dialami oleh Raja Gowa XII I Tepu Karaeng Daeng Parabbung yang diusir keluar ibukota kerajaan Gowa dan lari ke Buton. Disana beliau akhirnya wafat. Rakyat Gowa memberinya gelar pada beliau dengan julukan Karaeng Tunipasulu, artinya raja yang diusir.( Z. Tika dkk, Profil Raja-raja Gowa, LKPSB, tahun 2006, Hal, 29).

Bila Sang raja wafat atau turun tahta, maka penggantinya dipilih dari orang-orang yang mempunyai pengaruh besar terhadap masyarakat. Bila calon raja yang akan diangkat itu belum cukup umur maka ia tetap mejadi raja, hanya saja yang mejalankan roda pemerintahan adalah Mangkubuminya, Kelak setelah dewasa, barulah dinobatkan sebagai Raja dan melaksanakan kekuasaan permerintah.

Ketika Raja Gowa ke 24 I Mallawagau Sultan Abdul Khair wafat dalam usia 15 tahun pada 28 Juli 1742, maka Bate Salapanga mengangkat saudaranya I Mappababbasa menjadi raja Gowa yang ke 25. Setelah naik tahta, beliau bergelar Sultan Abdul Quddus. Beliaupun saat itu masih belum dewasa.

Untuk urusan roda pemerintahan, dilaksanakan oleh ayahandanya yaitu I Makkasumang Karaeng Lembangparang yang menjabat selaku Mangkabumi kerajaan Gowa / Raja Tallo.

I Makkusu’mang Karaeng Lembang Parang melihat, hubungan Gowa dengan Kerajaan Bima semakin akrab, maka untuk lebih mengakrabkan lagi, belilau telah mengawinkan putranya Sultan Abdul Quddus dengan Putri Sultan Bima, Sultan Alauddin Muhammad Syah yang bernama Karaeng BAllasari, yang juga masih turunan dari Raja Gowa.

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Dari perkawinan Sultan Abdul Quddus dengan Karaeng Ballasari, maka pada tahun 1747 lahirlah seorang putra yang diberi nama Usman atau Amas Madina. Suatu ketika saat Amas Madina yang masih Balita ini, Sultan Abdul Quddus sedang menjalankan rode pemerintahan, tiba-tiba ia sakit dan wafat pada tahun 1753.

Setelah beliau dikebumikan, Bate Salapanga kembali mengadakan sidang untuk memilih Raja pengganti Sultan Abdul Quddus. Dari hasil sidang, diputuskanlah, bahwa yang menjadi pengganti beliau adalah putranya bernama Usman atau Amas Madinah yang saat itu usianya baru 6 tahun. Amas Madinah dipilih menjadi Raja Gowa pada Tgl 21 Desember 1753.

Karena Raja Amas Madina ini belum beranjak dewasa, maka kakeknya I Makassumang Karaeng Lembangparang diangkat kembali menjabat Mangkubumi Kerajaan Gowa, menjalankan roda pemerintahan di Kerajaan Gowa.

Menurut adat kebiasaan yang berlaku di Kerajaan tanah Bugis dan Makassar, jika seorang anak Raja yang diangkat masih dibawah umur dan diangkat dalam suatu jabatan penting,harus mengambil nama lain atau gelar yang mengandung suatu cita-cita . Demikian halnya dengan Raja Amas Madina. Karaeng itu, dalam bulan Juli 1758, Dewa Bate Salapanga memberinya gelar Batara Gowa.

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Nama Batara Gowa itu dibangkitkan kembali oleh Bate Salapanga dengan tujuan untuk membangkitkan kembali kejayaan Batara Gowa yang pertama ( Raja Gowa VII ) putra dari Raja Gowa VI Tunatangkalopi dengan harapan Gowa kembali menjadi sebuah kerajaan yang berdaulat penuh dan bebas dari pengaruh asing, terutama penjajah Belanda. Raja Gowa Amas Madina kemudian mendapat gelar Batara Gowa II.

Pada tahun 1760 Mangkabumi Karaeng Lembangparang wafat, beliau kemudian digantikan oleh saudaranya bernama I Temmasongeng Karaeng Katangka sebagai mangkabumi yang juga sebagai wali dari Batara Gowa Amas Madina, karena saat itu, Raja Gowa Amas Madina masih dianggap belum dewasa.

Pada tanggal 29 Oktober 1765, Raja Gowa Amas Madina atau Batar Gowa II sudah mulai menginjak dewasa, karena itu Dewan Bate Salapanga melantik secara resmi Batara Gowa menjadi raja ke 26 di kerajaan Gowa dengan gelar Sultan Fakhruddin Abdul Khair Al Mansur Baginda Usman Batara Tangkana Gowa. Dengan dilantiknya Batara Gowa sebagai Raja , maka berakhirlah perwalian Mangkabumi I Temmasonggeng Karaeng Katangka atas Batara Gowa.

Sebagai Raja yang baru dilantik, ia telah banyak menimbah pengalaman dari Mangkabuminya, I Temmasonggeng Karaeng Katngka. Namun ada satu hal yang mengganjal di hati nuraninya, yakni adanya campur tangan Belanda terhadap urusan pemerintahan di kerajaan Gowa sehingga ia tidak punya kedaulatan penuh untuk mengatur pemerintahan di wilayah Kerajaan Gowa.

Ketika ia dinobatkan sebagai Raja Gowa , Belanda menyodorkan sebuah perjanjian pendek ( Korte Verklaring ) yang isinya Raja mengakui dominasi kekuasaan Belanda di negeri jajahannya, termasuk di kerajaan Gowa.

Walau Raja Gowa Batar Gowa II telah menandatangi Perjanjian Pendek, tetapi itu tidk sesuai dengan hati nuraninya. Batara Gowa malah mengajak rakyatnya untuk bersatu melawan penjajahan di wilayah kerajaan Gowa. Ajakan. Batara Gowa pun mendapat dukungan besar dari rakyat Gowa dan juga Bate Salapanga.

Merasa kewalahan Belanda kemudian menambah pasukannya untuk menumpas pasukan dari Batara Gowa . Penambahan pasukan belanda itu membuat pasukan Batara Gowa harus bergerilya keluar-masuk hutan belantara.

Batara Gowa yang dikepung dalam hutan itu, berniat untuk meninggalkan Gowa. Ia bercita-cita menuju negeri kelahiran Ibundanya Karaeng Ballasari di Kerajaan Bima.

Batara Gowa kemudina berlayar menuju negeri kelahiran Ibundanya Karaeng Bahasari ke Kesultanan Bima. Ia berangkat dengan sebuah perahu bersama beberapa orang pengikutnya.

Belanda yang telah menguasai wilayah kerajaan Gowa secara penuh pun menyatakan buron terhadap Batara Gowa dan mengeluarkan Sayembara, “barang siapa yang berhasi mengeluarkan Batara Gowa, hidup maupun mati, akan di beri uang.”

Dan pemerintah kerajaan Gowa mengalami kefakuman sehingga membuat Bate Salapanga harus menyusul Batara Gowa di Bima dan mengajak agar kembali memerintah Gowa.

Namun permintaan Bate Salapang ditolaknya karena ia punya firasat buruk terhadap dirinya, jangan-jangan ini hanya sebuah taktik yang di jalankan oleh Belanda agar mudah menangkapnya.

Kegagalan Bate Salanga untuk membujuk Batar gowa kembali ke Gowa membuat rakyat Gowa kehilangan, karena terjadi kefakuman pemerintahan .

Setelah Belanda mengetahui misi Bate Salapanga gagal maka Belanda segera memerintahkan pasukannya ke Bima untuk menangkap Batara Gowa . Setelah sampai di Bima, pasukan Belanda kemudian terus melakukan pencarian dimana Batara Gowa dan pengikutnya bersembunyi.

Untuk memudahkan penangkapan , belanda kemudian melakukan fitnah terhadap Batara Gowa Ia menuduh Batara Gowa melakukan hubungan rahasia dengan Inggris di Bengkulu. Kebetulan saat itu, hubungan belanda dengan pemerintah Inggris, baik di Eropa maupun di Negara Timur Jauh sangat buruk.

Belanda mengetahui bahwa Batara Gowa pernah bertemu dengan seorang bernama Cella Bangkahalu berlayar di perairan Lombok. Sedangkan Cella Bangkahalu itu berasal dari Bengkulen yang pada waktu itu masih dibawah kekuasaan Inggris.

Dan ketika Batara Gowa hendak menyingkirkan ibunya ke lain daerah karena di Bima dirasa sudah tidak aman lagi, tiba-tiba ia dilihat oleh tentara Belanda . Pada saat itulah Batara Gowa ditangkap dan dibawa kepada Residen Bima. Adapun ibunya dibebaskan karena ia dinyatakan tidak bersalah.

Untuk menghindari amukan massa pendukung Batara Gowa, Belanda bertindak cepat dengan mengasingkan Batara Gowa ke Batavia. Ketika Batara Gowa diasingkan ke Batavia, para pengikutnya baik di Gowa maupun di Bima, terus mendesak pemerintah Belanda agar rajanya dikembalikan.

Belanda merasa tidak aman kalau Batara Gowa tetap di Batavia , Belanda kemudian bermaksud mengasingkan Batara Gowa ke Negara jajahan lainnya yang lebih jauh, yakni ke Ceylon atau Sri Lanka. Dua tahun kemudian, tepatnya pada tahun 1767, Batara Gowa kemudian dibuangkan ke Ceylon.

Setelah dua tahun Gowa mengalami kevakuman pemerintahan , maka Dewan Bate Salapanga kembali bersidang untuk memilih pengganti Batara Gowa yang diasingkan ke Ceylon. Bate Salapange kemudian memilih saudara Batara Gowa bernama I Mallisujawa Daeng Ri Boko, dengan gelar Sultan Makdudin.

Raja Gowa yang baru dilanik, I Mallisujawa Daeng Riboko memohon kepada pihak Belanda agar merubah hukuman pembuangan Batara Gowa ke negeri Ceylon itu, dan bisa kembali ke Gowa. Namun Belanda selalu menolaknya. Penolakan permohonan tersebut membuat Sang Raja menjadi patah semangat.

I Mallisujawa hanya bertahan selama kurang lebih 2 tahun lamanya ( 1767-1769 ). Beliau kemudian secara sukarela turun tahta dan memilih menyingkir ke Barombong untuk menenangkan diri. Beliau kemudian dikenal dengan sebutan Arung Mampu . ( Ensiklopedi Sejara Sulsel, Hal 103-104 ).

Di Ceylon, Batara Gowa banyak bergaul dengan masyarakat setempat. Dari pergaulan rakyat Ceylon, Batara Gowa sudah mulai akrab dan tidak asing lagi dengan masyarakat Ceylon. Ia sudah mulai banyak tahu bahasa Singhala, disamping bahasa Inggris, yang merupakan bahasa percakapan sehari-hari masyarakat Sri Lanka.

Kala itu Negeri tersebut masih dijajah oleh belanda. Sebagai seorang bangsawan, Batara Gowa bertekad untuk melanjutkan perjuangan di negeri barunya. Batara Gowa berencana untuk menyusun sebuah kekuatan baru dengan merekrut para pemuda setempat dan mengajarinya berbagai latihan bela diri dan strategi militer.

Belanda menguasai Ceylon sejak tahun 1658 hingga tahun 1796 dengan merebutnya dari tangan Portugis. Tatapi setelah tahun 1796 Inggris berhasil mengusir Belanda dan menguasai negeri itu.

Gerakan bawah tanah yang dilakukan Batara Gowa di pengasingan itu, membuat kedudukan belanda semakin terancam, apa lagi belakangan ikut didukung oleh tentara Inggris yang berkeinginan merebut negeri itu dari kekuasaan belanda.

Gerakan Batara Gowa ini, membuat banyak terjadi teror dan sabotase diberbagai tempat, sasarannya adalah tentara belanda. Mereka menyerang tentara belanda pada setiap kesempatan. Gerakan ini memaksa Belanda untuk meningkatkan kekuatannya di negara itu

Dalam masa pembuangan di negeri Ceylon ini Batara Gowa tertarik dengan seorang gadis bangsawan Melayu di Ceylon yang bernama Siti Hapipa ejaan lokal untuk Siti Habiba . Pernikahan Batara Gowa- Siti Hapipa sedikit mengobati hati Batara Gowa selama di pengasingan.

Dari hasil perkawinan antara Batara Gowa- Siti Hapipa. Membuahkan 6 anak , yakni : Karaeng Yusuf, Kapten Karaeng Abdullah , Kapten Karaeng Muhammad Nuruddin, Zinal Abidin karaeng Segeri , Yunusu karaeng Sapanang , dan Kapten Karaeng Saifuddin. Sedangkan anak perempuannya bernama: Siti Hawang.

Keenam anak laki-laki Batara Gowa itu kemudian direkrut oleh Inggris untuk masuk dalam resimen Melayu-Ceylon guna ikut memperkuat dan mempertahankan benteng pertahanan Inggeris di Ceylon.

Adapun putri Batara Gowa, yakni Siti Hawang, dikabarkan diperistrikan dengan seorang raja Jawa dari Mataram yaitu Susuhunan Amangkurat 111 yang dikenal dengan Sunan Mas yang bekerja sama dengan Untung Surapati melawan Belanda. Beliau juga merupakan bangsawan buangan politk Belanda di negeri Ceylon. ( Dg Patunru, Sejarah Gowa hal 83 )

Susuhunan Amangkurat 111 dibuang Belanda ke Ceylon setelah terjadi perselisihan dengan pamannya sendiri, Pangeran Puger yang dibantu VOC untuk menyingkirkannya. Pangeran Puger akhirnya naik tahta Mataram di Surakarta dan bergelar Susuhunan Susuhunan Pakubuwono 1.

Dalam masa perjuangannya, Batara Gowa menaruh simpatik pada salah seorang putri Bangsawan Ceylon, yang juga adalah seorang muslimah. Nama istri keduanya itu tidak diketahui, akan tetapi dikabarkan, hasil perkawinan dengan istri keduanya itu, membuahkan seorang putra bernama Karaeng Sangunglo atau Karaeng Sanguinglo.

Namun istri kedua ini tidak bertahan lama sebagai pasang suami- istri,
belakangan diketahui, Batara Gowa menceraikan istri keduanya, akan tetapi anaknya Karaeng Sangunglo tetap ikut pada sang ayah.

Menurut kesaksian seorang Inggris, Karaeng Sangunglo ini bertubuh besar dan tegap. Ketika itu ia ikut dalam resimen orang-orang Melayu Ceylon bentukan Belanda sebelum akhirnya dilikuidasi oleh Inggris.

Kareng Sangunglo tampil sebagai seorang ksatria yang tangkas dalam seni bela diri dan memainkan senjata yang diwarisinya dari negeri leluhurannya di Gowa. Ia juga dibekali dengan ilmu kebal yang tidak dimakan senjata tajam maupun peluru, serta mampu melumpuhkan setiap lawan-lawannya dengan cepat.

Dalam setiap pertempuran, Karaeng Sangungo selalu berada di barisan paling depan. Desingan peuru yang mengarah padanya membuat mereka semakin berani. Seorang tentara Inggris di Ceylon saat itu, memberinya gelar : “Fat and Tall Malay Prince“ di medan tempur.

Dari keberanian itu, Karaeng Sangunglo sangat ditakuti oleh lawan . Ia kemudian dipercayakan untuk menjadi Panglima perang. Setiap pertempuran yang dipimpinya selalu membawa kemenangan dan menjadikannya semakin disegani.

Pada satu serangan VOC ke wilayah Kandy pada tahun 1761, Karaeng Sangunglo dan kawan-kawannya, yang tadinya ikut memperkuat Resimen orang-orang Melayu Ceylon, merasa antipati terhadap tentara Belanda yang menindas pribumi.

Pendidikan militer Belanda yang di dapatkan dalam Ceylon Rifle Regiment dianggap sudah cukup. Karaeng Sangunglo dan kawan-kawannya akhirnya membelot dan masuk memperkuat pertahanan Kerajaan Kandy.

Melihat kehebatan yang dimiliki Karaeng Sangunglo, Raja Kandy, Nayakkar Kirthi Rajashina (1747-17870) dengan senang hati menerima kedatangan para desertir itu. Mereka ditarik masuk menjadi pasukan pengawal istana Kerajaan Kandy.

Selama benteng pertahanan Kerajaan Kandy diperkuat oleh Karaeng Sangunglo, wilayah kerajaan jadi aman dari serangan musuh. Karaeng Sangunglo kemudian di percayakan untuk memimpin sekitar 300 orang Melayu Kandy (the Kandyan Malays) yang nenek moyang mereka berasal dari Nusantara.

Dari keberhasilan Karaeng Sangunglo mengamankan Kerajaan Kandy dari serangan musuh, Raja Kindy, Nayakkar kemudian menganugerakan gelar kehormatan kepada Karaeng Sangunglo dengan julukan “Muhandiran”.

Ayahnya, Batara Gowa pun sangat mendukung anaknya ikut dalam barisan Kerajaan Kandy. Sebab sejak ia diisingkan ke Ceylon oleh Belanda, tak pernah menaruh simpati pada belanda, walaupun Pemerintah Belanda memberi jaminan hidup di daerah pengasingan dengan memberikan gaji padanya akan tetapi bagi Batara Gowa, itu dianggapnya sebagai suatu penyiksaan batin.

Laskar melayu pimpinan Karaeng Sangunglo umumnya adalah Muslim. Menghormati kebebasan beragama di negeri itu, Raja Kandy Nayakkar membangunkan sebuah masjid di Kandy tak jauh dari istana.

Perbedaan agama di negeri itu tidak lagi di permasalahkan yang penting, mereka di tuntut untuk bersatu padu dalam membela Kerajaan Kandy dari serangan musuh-musuh, terutama dari kaum penjajah Inggeris maupun Belanda.

Ketika Inggeris berhasil mengusir Belanda pada tahun 1796 sekaligus menduduki Negeri Ceylon, maka pasukan resimen kaum pribumi bentukan belanda diambil alih oleh Inggeris. Dan ketika Inggris menguasai Ceylon, maka otomatis pasukan resimen ini banyak yang beralih ke Inggeris, dan sebagian lagi banyak beralih ke kerajaan kecil di wilayah Ceylon yang berhasil direkrut oleh pemerintah kerajaan setempat.

Ketika terjadi pengambilalihan kekuasaan di Ceylon dari Belanda ke Inggris, maka resimen Melayu Ceylon juga pecah. Pasukan Melayu pimpinan Karaeng Sangunglo, juga banyak yang berpihak ke Inggeris, dan sebagian banyak berpihak ke kerajaan Kandy.

Dikabarkan Karaeng Sangunglo dan beberapa orang pengikutnya membelot ke Raja Kandy, sedangkan saudaranya Kapten Nuruddin dan Kapten Karaeng Syaifuddin ikut dalam barisan pasukan Inggris.

Ketika perang berkecamuk Inggris melawan pasukan Kerajaan Kandy, Raja Kandy mengangkat Karaeng Sangunglo dengan terpaksa ikut berperang dengan -saudara tirinya itu,- agar bergabung dengan Kerajaan Kandy, akan tetapi karena keduanya termasuk pasukan setia Inggris, maka dengan terpaksa kedua bersaudara ini harus berperang untuk membela tuannya masing-masing.

Ketika perang bercambuk, pasukan Inggris yang yang dipimpin oleh Mayor Davie, dipersenjatai dengan senjata modern. Dari kekuatan itu, pasukan Inggeris dengan mudah menyerbu wilayah Kerajaan Kandy, namun ketika memasuki basis pertahanan. Ia banyak mendapat serangan balik dari pasukan Karaeng Sangunglo.

Pasukan Karaeng Sangunglo yang kebanyakan bersenjatakan tradisional, seperti klewang dan juga ada sebagian Senjata rampasan, harus menghadapi desingan peluru dan tentara Inggeris. Namun, berkat semangat ayam jantan dari leluhurnya Sultan Hasanuddin membuat mereka tak gentar menghadapi pasukan Inggeris.

Pada serangan yang pertama, pasukan Inggeris pimpinan Mayor Davie ke Kerajaan Kandy yang terkenal dengan julukan The Fisrt Anglo Kandyan War itu, Inggeris menderita kekalahan besar. Padahal pasukan Karaeng Sangunglo kebanyakan bersenjatakan klewang.

Ratusan pasukan Inggeris terbunuh dalam serangan itu. Dari sekian banyak korban, yang paling menyedihkan adalah, saudara tiri Karaeng Sangunglo, yakni kapten Karaeng Nuruddin dan Kapten Karaeng Syaifuddin, yang memilih tetap setiap pada pasukan Inggeris, juga ikut tewas dalam peperangan di wilayah Kerajaan Kandy.

Atas kekalahan pasukan tersebut Gubernur Frederick North (‘798-1805) di Colomba mengeluarkan perintah pada Mayor Davie, agar pasukan Inggeris menyerah dengan tujuan untuk menghindari jatuhnya korban lebih banyak lagi.

Kematian kedua saudara tiri Karaeng Sangunglo yang menolak bergabung dengan tentara Kandy membuat Raja Kandy Sri Vikrama Raja Shina (1798-1815) amat murka.

Sang Raja kemudian memerintahkan algojonya untuk mengeksekusi kedua mayat saudara Karaeng Karaeng Sangunglo itu. Raja melarang kedua mayat itu di kebumikan , dan ia memerintahkan algojonya untuk membuang kedua mayat itu kedalam hutan untuk menjadi santapan binatang buas.

Adapun keberanian Karaeng Sangunglo dalam mempertahankan Kerajaan Kindy dari serangan tentara Inggris mendapat pujian dari Raja Kandy, Sri Vikrama Rajasinha. Ia di kenal sebagai seorang pemberani dari negeri Makassar yang pantang menyerah terhadap musuh. Ia memiliki taktik perang yang lebih professional disertai dengan bela diri yang diturunkan oleh ayahnya Batara Gowa.

Ketika perang di kerajaan Kindy berkecamuk antara pasukan Inggris pimpinan mayor Davie dan pasukan kerajaan Kandy pimpinan karaeng Sangunglo. Disaat Karaeng Sangunglo hendak membela salah orang pasukannya, ia sempat melindunginya dengan menembaki pasukan Inggris yang ada di depannya, namun malang baginya, disaat keluar dari persembunyiannya dibalik pohon, dari jauh Mayor Davie sudah membidik dengan senjata api, begitu tembakan dilepaskan oleh Mayor Divie, kontan peluru langsung nancap di bidan Karaeng Sangunglo. Ketika karaeng Sangunglo terkapar, kesempatan itu dimanfaatkan oleh pasukan ingeris lainnya untuk memberondong dengan peluru para panglima perang Kandy, hingga Karaeng Sangunglo gugur di medan perang.

Kematian Karaeng Sangunglo, tak membuat prajurit kerajaan Kandy harus takut menghadapi pasukan Inggris. Berkat ilmu bela diri maupun taktik perang yg diajarkannya kepada prajurit Kerajaan Kandy, membuat mereka lebih berani menghadapi setiap musuh.

Sesuai perang, jenazah Karaeng Sangunglo kemudian di semayangkan secara islami , karena beliau adalah seseorang muslim didalam istana kerajaan \kandy . Karaeng Sangunlo kemudian di makamkan di Taman Makam kerajaan Kandy di Ceylon dengan upacara militer . Upacara ini dihadiri oleh raja Kandi Sri Vikrama Rajasinha dan pembesar Kerajaan Kandi lainnya, juga pasukan resimen orang-orang melayu tergabung dalam Kandyan Malays .

Jasa Karaeng Sangunlo dikenang sepanjang masa oleh masyarakat Kandi dan masyarakat Ceylon pada umumnya , karena telah berjasa dalam membela Warga Kandy dan bangsa Ceylon umumnya dari keganasan kaum penjajah.

Sosok keberanian Karaeng Sangunlo ini , menjadi motivasi bagi warga kandy untuk tetap bangkit melawan kaum penjajah yang ingin menguasai negeri Ceeylon . dari hasil perjuangan rakyat Ceylon melawan penjajah , akhirnya pada tahun 1947 , rakyat Ceylon berhasil memperoleh kedaulatan penuh dari tangan Inggris, sekarang menjadi sebuah negara, namanya Sri Lanka.

Tim Penulis:
Zainuddin Tika, Mas’ud Kasim, S.Pd, M.Pd, Rosdiana S. Sos.

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Syahrul Yasin Limpo, SH, dkk, Profil Sejarah, Budaya dan Pariwisata Gowa – Yayasan Eksponen 66, Tahun 1995.

Syarifuddin Kulle dkk, I Mappasempak Daeng Mamaro Karaeng Bontolangkasa,Perc. Buana. Tahun 2006 ——————— I Fatimah Daeng Takontu, Pec. Rahma, Sungguminasa 2006.

Zainal Abidin Farid, Prof, Dr, Presepsi orang Bugis Makassar Tentang Hukum dan Dunia Luar, Alumni bandung 1993.(Red)

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154 thoughts on “Pahlawan Sri Langka dari Tanah Makassar

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